Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. They identified a possible ally in Husayn ibn Ali, also known as Sharif Husayn of Mecca. These representations constituted the early matter of what the literary critic Edward Said called Orientalism—that is, the body of stereotyped portrayals of the Islamic "Orient" that Western powers later used to justify their expansion in the Middle East. Britain's Moment in the Middle East, 1914–1971. Turhan, Filiz. Muhammad Ali, the Ottoman army officer who established, consolidated, and expanded his hold over Egypt after the Anglo-Ottoman expulsion of the French army in 1801, had already conquered parts of the Sudan when he sent his son, Ibrahim Pasha, to take Ottoman Syria in 1831. ." Kennedy, Dane. While several key events stand Britain's attention in Iran shifted increasingly to Russia, which had been expanding its empire by encroaching on Iran's northern domains in the Caucasus (in what is now Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan) and by asserting its hold over the Caspian Sea and Central Asia. "Capitulations." The Middle East's ties to the city of Rome were gradually severed as the Empire split into East and West, with the Middle East tied to the new Roman capital of Constantinople. Leiden, Netherlands; Boston: Brill, 2004. Moguls and Mandarins: Oil, Imperialism, and the Middle East in British Foreign Policy, 1900–1940. By the end of the eighteenth century, when Britain stood poised to expand its influence in the Middle East, the Ottoman Empire had already begun to suffer military losses to Austria, Russia, and France and to lose territories along its fringes, for example, in Hungary and the Crimea. Lewis, Bernard. Farther to the west, North Africa assumed vital importance as a staging area for the United States and Britain to launch their invasion of fascist Italy, from which they hoped to move northward to attack German positions in central Europe. (In other words, Muhammad Ali, the Ottoman underling, was trying to take over the empire from within, for the sake of building his own empire centered in Egypt.) It can also be described as an ideology of superiority.However, the root of the word comes from the Latin word colonus (farmer) and thus is frequently used to address the practice of population transfer from one territory to another. British Documents on Foreign Affairs: Reports and Papers from the Foreign Office Confidential Print, Part 2: From the First to the Second World War. GREAT BRITAIN, RELATIONS WITH. Colonization as a concept has been superseded since the 20th century by the concept of state sovereignty. As early as 1580, English merchants (like their Venetian, French, and other European counterparts) secured formal commercial privileges for trading in the Ottoman Empire (and later gained comparable rights in Iran). The League of Nations, which was the post-World War I antecedent of the United Nations, clarified this term by stating that mandates were territories "inhabited by peoples not yet able to stand by themselves under the strenuous conditions of the modern world." Along with France, Britain played the leading role in dismantling the Ottoman Empire after World War I and in creating new government entities in the Fertile Crescent, that is, future nation-states. They proved significant as the basis for a series of extrajudicial and fiscal rights that Britons continued to enjoy in the Middle East until the early twentieth century. 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